What is a Hernia?
A hernia is an abnormal protrusion of part of the intestines through a weak part of the abdomen, that is, part of the guts is poking through the abdominal wall. Normally, the front of the abdomen has several layers comprising of skin then fat then muscles and broad ligaments. Underneath all these lie the intestines (guts). If, for any reason, there is a weak point in the muscles or ligaments, part of the intestines push through. You can then feel a soft lump under the skin. Inguinal hernia occurs when a portion of the small intestine enters the inguinal canal.
Where do they occur?
The most common site is in the groin as the groin is often the weakest point of the abdomen. However, hernias can be found sometimes at other sites eg. next to the navel (belly button) or under an old operation scar.
What are the symptoms?
What is GERD?
GERD is the abbreviation for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. This comprises of all symptoms arising due to reflux of stomach contents to food pipe. GERD is also called acid reflux or acid regurgitation. It is a chronic condition and causes damage to the mucous membranes, by the abnormal reflux in the oesophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach).
What causes GERD?
GERD occurs when the Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) relaxes inappropriately for long durations causing acid to reflux to oesophagus. It primarily occurs when the Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) opens spontaneously, for varying periods of time. It also happens when the LES does not close properly and contents of the stomach rise up into the oesophagus. The LES is a muscle ring that lies at the bottom of the oesophagus. It acts like a valve between the oesophagus and the stomach. When acid reflux occurs, and the refluxed stomach acid touches the lining of the oesophagus, a burning sensation can be felt in the chest or throat. This is commonly called heartburn or acid indigestion.
Symptoms of GERD
Frequent heartburn or acid indigestion (burning in the lower part of the mid-chest, behind the breast bone, and in the mid-abdomen) is the most common symptom of GERD. However, many children under 12 and some adults may experience a dry cough, asthma, sore thr
What is acid peptic disease?
Acid peptic disease – commonly called APD – includes a number of conditions. All these conditions are the result of damage from acid and peptic activity in gastric secretions. APD occurs when the acid starts irritating the inner cells (mucosal layer) of the stomach. Acid peptic diseases mostly affect the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
What causes acid peptic disease?
Acid peptic diseases are caused by the excessive presence of acid and pepsin. The two main types of acid peptic diseases are gastric and duodenal ulcer. However, they can also occur at the GJ Stoma, lower end of oesophagus, and Meckel’s diverticulum. According to duration and complexity of symptoms they can be acute or chronic.
What are the symptoms of acid peptic disease?
A digestive function disorder, acid peptic disease is characterised by dyspepsia (discomfort, heartburn, or nausea). However, the classic symptom of peptic ulcer disease, is defined as pain centered in the upper abdomen or discomfort characterised by fullness, bloating, distention, or nausea. Factors contributing to acid peptic disorder Acid peptic disorder results when the balance between the aggressive and defensive factors in the gastroduodenal mucosa is disrupted. This balance could be disrupted by factors such as H pylori infection, NSAID (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug)
What is a Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS)?
SILS is a revolutionary new way of performing laparoscopic surgery in which only one small (20mm) incision is made to carry out an operation. Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery is an advance minimally invasive approach in which the surgeon operates almost exclusively through a single entry point, typically the patients belly button. All of the instruments necessary for the surgery are used through this single incision. With this new technique, pain and discomfort are reduced to minimum and recovery time is quicker.
How is SILS different from traditional laparoscopic surgery?
Over the last decade laparoscopic surgery has replaced open surgery in the treatment of several diseases. In traditional laparoscopic surgery, the abdomen is filled with carbon dioxide gas to create a space for the surgeon to work in. Tubes called ports are then inserted through three to four small cuts, each measuring around ½-1 cm. A telescope attached to a camera inserted through one of the ports allows the surgical team to observe a magnified picture of the internal organs on a television screen. The surgeon carries out the surgery with the help of instruments introduced through these ports. In SILS, the surgeon makes only one incision of around 20mm c(commonly just below the navel) to create a specially designe