Clots may obstruct the blood flow in the body but at Fortis Hospitals Bannerghatta, nothing comes in the way of excellence in treatment.
Thrombosis gets the best available treatment and care in the right hands here at Fortis Hospitals Bannerghatta, one of the best in its league when it comes to advanced treatment methodology.
If the expert practitioners suspect you have thrombosis, you will be put through tests to diagnose the veracity of the condition.
Blood tests will be undertaken to see how well your blood can clot. An ultrasound test uses sound waves to check the blood flow in your arteries and veins.
For the Venography test to check the health of your veins, a dye is injected into your veins. Following this, an X ray is taken to see the blood flow and check for clots. If there are clots, depending on the type of clot you have and where it is located in your body, an MRI, MRA or CAT scan will be advised.
The best treatment plan is drawn up by our expert team of doctors after taking into account your age, medical history, your state of illness, overall health, and any allergic reactions to any medications.
Depending on all these tests and your health condition, you will be put on anti-coagulants or blood thinning medicines to dissolve the clots. If the clots are many in number and spread across different arteries and veins, either catheters or stents will be surgically implanted to widen or keep the blood vessel open.
For all types of thrombosis treatment, Fortis Hospitals Bannerghatta is the go-to place for your health needs.
The blood in our body flows freely through our veins and arteries. While our arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body, the veins transport blood from the body to the heart. When there is an obstruction or clot in the blood vessels it causes a whole lot of complications to the blood supply. This clot or thrombus formation is called Thrombosis.
This kind of clot can obstruct the blood flow in the area where the clot has formed. Moreover, if this clot moves to the brain or the lungs, it can be lifethreatening.
Another leading cause for the formation of a clot is overactive clotting factors such as platelets and fibrin in the blood vessels. When our body is injured and starts bleeding, it indulges in the natural process of clotting to stop excessive bleeding. However, as is in most cases, over indulgence can be harmful. In the same way, if there is an excessive overproduction of these clotting factors, it can not only obstruct the blood flow to the rest of the body but also form clots that can circulate in the blood stream. This is usually as a result of genetics or disorders of the immune system.
Thrombosis can be broadly classified as either venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis, according to where the thrombus or clot is present in the body. A clot in the veins is called venuous thrombosis while the one in the arteries is the arterial thrombosis.
Venous thrombosis may be caused by several factors that include injury or a disease in the veins of the leg, fracture, obesity and hence a sedentary lifestyle, certain medications, inherited disorders and auto –immune disorders that cause more clotting
Arterial thrombosis may be caused by a hardening of the arteries, called arteriosclerosis. This type of thrombosis is caused when fatty or calcium deposits in the walls of the arteries cause them to thicken leading to a buildup of fatty plaque. When this plaque ruptures, it forms a clot. When arterial thrombosis takes place in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, it can block the vital connect and lead to a heart attack. An arterial thrombosis or clot in the blood vessels in the brain can cause a brain attack or stroke.
The word ‘idiopathic’ means ‘unknown cause’. Due to unknown causes, in some people, their immune system can attack and destroy their platelets in the blood. This is called Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.
Platelets help in the clotting of blood. When there is a fewer number of platelets in the blood, it increases your risk of bleeding.
In those suffering from ITP, the antibodies that are produced by the immune system to fight diseases, attach themselves to the platelets for some unknown reason. The spleen is an organ that helps your body fight infections. When the spleen sees these antibodies, it removes the platelets causing a lesser number of them in your circulatory system.
Normal platelet count in a human being is between 150,000 and 450,000 platelets per microliter of circulating blood. In those with ITP, the platelet count dips dangerously low to below 20,000. If your platelet count comes down to below 10,000 platelets per microlitre you can have internal bleeding and a big risk to your life.
ITP can occur in children after a viral infection such as a flu, that may cause the immune system to malfunction and attack itself.
Normally, there are no visible signs to reveal you may be suffering from ITP. However there may be some tell-tale symptoms you may have to watch out for. Symptoms can include:
Bleeding from the nose or gums
Blood in the urine or stools
Excessive and heavy menstrual flow
Severe and easy bruising
Appearance of a rash or reddish-purple spots on the calves or lower legs
In children, look for these unexpected symptoms such as uncontrollable bleeding and rush the child to the emergency department of Fortis Hospitals Bannerghatta where the team of experts are trained and qualified to handle all emergencies in children.
Blood tests are prescribed to determine if it is indeed ITP you are suffering from. The most common blood test through your blood sample checks for the number of platelets in your blood. If you have ITP, the white and red blood cell counts are usually normal, but the platelet count is low.
The blood smear test is usually used to confirm the number of platelets observed in a complete blood count.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of blood clots in the largest vein of the body, the one in the leg that runs through the calf and thigh muscles. It can cause extreme pain and swelling in the leg where the clot has travelled and embedded itself. This can further lead to more complications such as pulmonary embolism. This is a very serious condition when a piece of clotted blood breaks off and flows into the blood stream, blocking one of the blood vessels in the lungs. It can cause extreme pain and swelling in the leg.
DVT and pulmonary embolism are collectively known as venous thromboembolism (VTE).
DVT usually affects one leg and not all cases of DVT show up any symptoms. If there are telltale signs, they usually show up as:
Extreme pain in the affected area of the clot formation
Reddened skin especially at the back of your leg below the knee
Pain and swelling in the calf region
If you experience extreme and sudden pain in one leg accompanied by swelling and a heavy ache, it is time you saw the prolific doctors at Fortis Hospital Bannerghatta. As a first step towards preliminary examination, your medical history will be taken into account.
Once the checkup is done and the symptoms are observed, which may be difficult to ascertain at first glance, you will be advised a set of tests.
A specialised blood test called the D-dimer Test is often recommended in this case. The D-dimer Test detects the loose fragments of blood clots that have broken up and running loose in your blood stream. If the test recognises that there are a large number of broken pieces, there is a high chance of a blood clot in your vein.
Another effective test is the ultrasound scan to detect clots in your veins. The Doppler Ultra Sound Scan is highly precise in checking the speed in which the blood is flowing through the blood vessels. Depending on the speed, doctors can spot the slowness of the blood flow, or if it is blocked, indicating the reason to be a blood clot.
When both the D-dimer and Doppler Ultrasound scans are not effective in revealing the blood clot, the Venogram saves the diagnostic process. For the venogram test, a contrast liquid dye is injected into the vein in the foot. This coloured dye travels all the way up the leg and is detected through an X-ray. The X-ray shows up the gap in the blood vessel where the blood clot has caused the blockage in the blood flow.
The hepatic portal vein is the prominent blood vessel that transports the blood from the spleen and the gastro-intestinal tract to the liver. It is about 3-4 inches long. When this vital portal vein is blocked by a blood clot or it causes it to narrow down and prevent continuous blood flow to the liver, the fluid accumulates in the abdomen causing the spleen to enlarge. Sometimes there is severe bleeding in the oesophagus. When the vein is blocked, it can cause a build-up of pressure or portal hypertension which can be fatal sometimes.
Because of the poor blood supply to the liver, the blood is more likely to clot.
Portal vein thrombosis shows up specific symptoms such as fever, indigestion, and gradual buildup and worsening abdominal pain.
PVT is treatable but is also a life-threatening condition. There are a number of high precision tests to diagnose this rather disturbing condition.
This sound test uses imaging to display blood circulation within the tiny blood vessels. It makes the sound waves to bounce off the normally functioning red blood cells. It can aptly diagnose PVT.
The CT or computerized tomography scans make use of X-rays and processing to produce precise images of the blood vessels and the bones. To identify the exact location of the blood clots, a dye is injected in the veins and move into the blood vessels. The CT scan will then present the images for doctors to examine and determine the site of the clot.
Where the other two tests do not manage to show up any distinct clot spots, the MRI rises to the occasion. This Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) device uses radio waves and magnets to identify the blood circulation, abdominal swelling, blood flow irregularities, tumours and growths on tissues and organs such as the liver, etc.
One of the most effective yet invasive procedures to identify blood clots is the angiography. A dye is injected directed into the vein or artery and a fluoroscope is used to study the blood circulation in the organs to identify blood clots if any.
In PVT patients, the treatment focuses largely on dissolving the blood clot instantly and preventing its occurrence for a long time.
For acute PVT, prescription drugs that can dissolve blood clots are prescribed. If the clot growth is gradual, anticoagulants are given. Blood thinning agents such as heparin are recommended to prevent clots from recurring. Beta blockers reduce pressure in the portal vein and stem the risk of any excess bleeding.
This is a technique that requires the use of rubber bands to stem the bleeding in the esophagus or stomach. Here, rubber bands are inserted through the mouth into the esophagus to tie off the varicose veins.
This may be the last option depending on the severity of the PVT damage. Shunt surgery involves placing a tube between the portal vein and the hepatic vein in the liver to prevent excessive bleeding and to reduce the pressure in the veins. Only when there is severe damage to the liver, a transplant may be the only treatment solution.
When a blood clot develops in the artery, it is known as Arterial thrombosis. It can prove to be lethal since it can block the flow of blood to vital organs such as the heart and brain. If the blood clot narrows one or more of the arteries leading to the heart, it can cause pain in the cardiac muscle. This is called angina. An embolism or blockage in the brain can cause a stroke.
Depending on which part of your body the clot is located, AT can cause angina, a heart attack, stroke, or peripheral vascular disease.
When a blood clot blocks the artery that pumps blood to your heart muscle, it can lead to a heart attack. Typical symptoms are, a heavy crushing chest pain and mild discomfort, sweating, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, and shortness of breath.
AT can lead to a brain stroke if the blood clot blocks the artery transporting vital blood to the brain. Stroke symptoms are usually very sudden. Look for paralysis of the whole side of the body, difficulty talking and understanding, imbalance and coordination of actions, weakness in the face causing drooping and drooling of saliva, numbness or weakness down one side of the body, etc.
Medication can help dissolve clots and restore the flow of the blood to the brain or heart. The other modes of treatment include:
Cardiologists recommend a heart procedure if they spot the blood clot in the artery supplying blood to your heart.
A coronary angioplasty is the most common type of procedure for a heart attack. Here, a hollow metal tube called a stent is inserted to widen the artery and stop it from getting blocked again.
Sometimes, cardiac surgeons carry out a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)following a heart attack. In this procedure, a blood vessel is taken from another part of the body, usually the thigh, to make a bypass route near the site of the blockage, for the blood supply,
This type of surgery is done if you have had a blood clot in an artery in your neck that has caused a stroke. In Carotid endarterectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the neck to open up the artery and remove the fatty deposits.
The platelets in the blood are manufactured in the spongy tissue in our bones called the bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside your bones. Our body needs these vital platelets to help clotting naturally to prevent excessive bleeding. However, if our body doesn’t make enough platelets or these platelets are destroyed faster than they are produced, you can get Thrombocytopenia.
Certain viruses including chicken pox, rubella, mumps, HIV or the Epstein-Barr
Blood disorders like aplastic anaemia can affect the bone marrow, restricting it from producing healthy platelets
Cancers such as leukemia, or lymphoma which damage the bone marrow
Hereditary diseases that cause platelets count
Chemotherapy or radiation treatment that destroys the stem cells that form platelets.
Contact with chemicals, pesticides, arsenic etc that can slow down our body into forming fewer platelets
Certain viruses and rare diseases that make blood clots form in the body
Medicines such as antibiotics containing sulpha, etc.
Doctors at Fortis Hospitals Bannerghatta are at the forefront of their domain in not only treating the most complex conditions but are also experts in imparting information to patients.
When it comes to Thrombocytopenia, they feel that the symptoms start getting visible only when the platelets count begins to fall below the normal levels.
While there are rarely any visible symptoms in those suffering from thrombocytopenia, when you do see them, it starts with bleeding. You could bleed from the nose or the gums. You can bleed both externally or inside your body. It could be heavy and hard to spot.
You could suffer from headaches, heavy menstrual periods, purple-red bruises, or blood in the urine or the bowels.
Not all thrombocytopenia patients need treatment if their disorder does not cause too many complications. In fact, the doctors are of the view that if your platelets count is not too low, you may not even need any treatment.
If you are suffering from severe thrombocytopenia, the doctors, after going through your history, will prescribe:
Blood platelets transfusion from a healthy person, steroids to prevent your body from destroying the platelets, and surgery to remove the spleen.
Before administering medications or starting your treatment module, the expert panel of doctors at Fortis Hospitals Bannerghatta will want to know more about your medical history and family health. You will be examined for any signs of low platelets count such as bruises, spots or rashes on your skin.
Your doctor will ask questions about your medical history and symptoms. You’ll also get an exam to look for bruises, spots of blood on your skin, and other signs of low platelets. You’ll be checked for signs of infection, like a fever or rash.
You will also be recommended to take a blood test to measure the number of platelets since you can have severe bleeding issues if the platelet count drops to below 50,000.
Another diagnostic test is the blood smear or the bone marrow test to check if everything is normal under the microscope.
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